Section 2 EO M337.02 – DETERMINE A POSITION ON A VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR) NAVIGATIONAL CHART (VNC)
Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in ACRCCP803/PG001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within the TP for which they are required.
Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.
Create a list of predetermined coordinates that correspond to airports on the VNC to be used in TP 3.
Create a list of locations to be used in TP 4.
N/A.
An interactive lecture was chosen for TPs 1 and 2 to introduce basic air navigation terms.
Demonstration and performance was chosen for TPs 3 and 4 as it allows the instructor to explain and demonstrate determining positions and coordinates while providing an opportunity for the cadet to practice under supervision.
N/A.
By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have determined a position on a VNC.
It is important for cadets to be able to determine a position on a VNC as this is a transferable skill in any type of navigation which uses maps that have a graticule.
Teaching point 1

Explain that the Earth is Divided Into Sections by an Imaginary Grid System
Called a Graticule

Time: 5 min

Method: Interactive Lecture

A graticule is a threedimensional geometrical pattern of intersecting circles. Envision the black lines on a basketball, or a globe with only the black lines. When applied to the earth, either on a globe or a map, we refer to these intersecting lines as parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.
Parallels of Latitude
Parallels of latitude are a series of concentric circles, which measure north and south. The baseline for measuring is the equator, which is 0 degrees of latitude. As one travels away from the equator the degree of latitude becomes larger, to a maximum of 90 degrees north or south. The southern borders of Canada’s Prairie Provinces lie on the 49^{th} parallel of latitude, and are therefore at 49 degrees north latitude. Latitude is expressed in degrees (°), minutes ('), and seconds ("). Though the terms are similar, latitude is not a measurement of time and is actually related to distance. One minute of latitude is equal to one nautical mile (nm).
Meridians of Longitude
Meridians of longitude are a series of circles, which measure east and west. The baseline for measuring is the prime meridian, which runs north to south through Greenwich, England. The prime meridian is 0 degrees of longitude. As one travels away from the prime meridian the degree of longitude becomes larger, to a maximum of 180 degrees east or west. Many meridians of longitude pass through Canada, with one being made famous by the Tragically Hip song “Hundredth Meridian”. Longitude is expressed in degrees (°), minutes ('), and seconds ("). Longitude is not a measurement of time, but there is a relationship between time and longitude.
The Equator
The equator is the only parallel of latitude, which divides the earth into two equal halves. It is expressed as 0 degrees of latitude and is the dividing line between the northern and southern hemispheres.
The Prime Meridian
The prime meridian is one half of a circle, which will divide the earth into two equal halves. The other half is the International Date Line. The prime meridian is expressed as 0 degrees of longitude, while the International Date Line is expressed as 180 degrees of longitude. Both lines divide the earth into the western and eastern hemispheres.
What is a graticule?
Which directions do parallels of latitude measure?
Which directions do meridians of longitude measure?
A graticule is a threedimensional geometrical pattern of intersecting circles.
Parallels of latitude measure north and south from the equator.
Meridians of longitude measure east and west from the prime meridian.
Teaching point 2

Explain Geographical Coordinates

Time: 5 min

Method: Interactive Lecture

The locations of cities, towns, and airports may be designated by their geographical coordinates. These coordinates express where a parallel of latitude intersects with a meridian of longitude. This is similar in principle to the Xand Yaxis on a graph.
Units of Measurement
Both latitude and longitude use the same units of measurement: degrees, minutes, and seconds. There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in a degree. For latitude, this means that one degree is equal to 60 nm.
Sequencing
When expressing geographical coordinates, latitude is always shown first and longitude second. Whenever possible, coordinates should be given in the greatest detail. This means using degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude and longitude. The more precise the coordinates, the easier it will be to find a location.
Examples of coordinates include:
Penticton Airport: N 49° 27' 47" W 119° 36' 08"
Red Deer Airport: N 52° 10' 43" W 113° 53' 35"
St. Jean Airport: N 45° 17' 40" W 73° 16' 52"
Debert Airport: N 45° 25' 07" W 63° 27' 28"
What are geographical coordinates used for?
How are geographical coordinates expressed?
What is an example of a coordinate?
Designating the location of cities, towns, and airports.
Latitude is always shown first, longitude second.
Answers may vary. Use examples in TP 2 as a guide.
Teaching point 3

Given a Set of Coordinates, Demonstrate and Have the Cadet Determine the
Location of an Airport

Time: 10 min

Method: Demonstration and Performance

The objective of this activity is to determine the location of an airport using coordinates.
Paper,
Tape or adhesive putty,
VNC, and
Predetermined sets of coordinates for airports.
Arrange the classroom so that each pair may work with a VNC.
1.Divide the cadets into pairs.
2.Write three sets of coordinates on the whiteboard and cover them with paper.
3.Distribute one VNC to each pair of cadets.
4.Uncover the first set of coordinates, and demonstrate how to find the airport.
5.Have the cadets find the airport at those coordinates. Assist as necessary.
6.Uncover the second set of coordinates and repeat step five.
7.Uncover the third set of coordinates and repeat step five.
N/A.
The cadets’ participation in the locating an airport activity will serve as confirmation of this TP.
Teaching point 4

Demonstrate and Have the Cadet Determine the Coordinates of a Given Location
on a Map

Time: 5 min

Method: Demonstration and Performance

The objective of this activity is to determine the coordinates of a given location on a map.
Paper,
Tape or adhesive putty,
VNC, and
Predetermined locations on a map.
Arrange the classroom so that each pair may work with a VNC.
1.Divide the cadets into pairs.
2.Write two locations on the whiteboard and cover with paper.
3.Distribute one VNC to each pair of cadets.
4.Choose a location on the map and demonstrate how to determine the coordinates.
5.Uncover the first location. Assist cadets by giving them general directions (eg, trace a line with their fingers northeast of city X).
6.Have the cadets determine the coordinates of that location. Assist as necessary.
7.Uncover the second set of coordinates and repeat step five and six.
N/A.
The cadets’ participation in the determining coordinates activity will serve as confirmation of this TP.
The cadets’ participation in the activities in TPs 3 and 4 will serve as confirmation of this lesson.
N/A.
This EO is assessed IAW Chapter 3, Annex B, Aviation Subjects – Combined Assessment PC.
Determining a location on a map is a very useful skill that cadets may use throughout life, not just in aviation. This skill can transfer to survival, outdoor sports, or travel of any kind.
VNCs can be ordered through your Area Cadet Officer (ACO), purchased at a local flight training centre, or ordered online at NavCanada.
EO C337.02 (Practice Air Navigation Skills, Section 4) may be conducted to provide extra practice of the skills learned in this EO.
C3116 
(ISBN 0968039057) MacDonald, A. F., & Peppler, I. L. (2000). From the Ground Up: Millennium Edition. Ottawa, ON: Aviation Publishers Co. Limited. 
C3139 
(ISBN 0771551150) Transport Canada. (1999). Flight Training Manual: 4^{th} Edition Revised. Ottawa, ON: Transport Canada. 
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